Michigan State University Faculty Of Law

The army and police carry out enforcement on the request of the government or the courts. The time period failed state refers to states that cannot implement or enforce policies; their police and navy not control security and order and society moves into anarchy, the absence of presidency. The head of state is other than the chief, and symbolically enacts laws and acts as representative of the nation. Examples include the President of Germany , the Queen of the United Kingdom , and the President of Austria .

In exceptional circumstances defences can apply to particular acts, corresponding to killing in self defence, or pleading madness. Another instance is within the 19th-century English case of R v Dudley and Stephens, which tested a defence of “necessity”. Three crew members and Richard Parker, a 17-year-old cabin boy, have been stranded on a raft. They argued it was necessary to kill the …