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The small Greek city-state, historical Athens, from concerning the 8th century BC was the first society to be primarily based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding ladies and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for “law”, relying as a substitute on the three-way distinction between divine law (thémis), human decree and custom (díkē). Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. In 1934, the Austrian thinker Hans Kelsen continued the positivist custom in his e-book the Pure Theory of Law.

  • As one legal historian wrote, “Justinian consciously seemed again to the golden age of Roman law and aimed to restore it to the height it had reached three centuries before.” The Justinian Code remained in drive within the East until the fall of the Byzantine Empire.
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